Home | About IJMPO | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |  Login 
Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 

 Table of Contents      
LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 37  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 309-311  

Multiple cutaneous malignancies in a child with xeroderma pigmentosum: A case report


Department of Skin and V. D., Shree Krishna Hospital, Anand, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication14-Dec-2016

Correspondence Address:
Rita V Vora
Department of Skin and V. D., Shree Krishna Hospital, Anand, Gujarat
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-5851.195750

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Vora RV, Kota RS, Diwan NG. Multiple cutaneous malignancies in a child with xeroderma pigmentosum: A case report. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol 2016;37:309-11

How to cite this URL:
Vora RV, Kota RS, Diwan NG. Multiple cutaneous malignancies in a child with xeroderma pigmentosum: A case report. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2017 Mar 22];37:309-11. Available from: http://www.ijmpo.org/text.asp?2016/37/4/309/195750



Sir,

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by pigmentary abnormalities, solar skin damage, and cutaneous malignancies on sun exposed area of skin and eyes because of inability to repair the ultraviolet (UV) radiation inflicted damage to deoxyribose nucleic acid.[1] Both genetic, as well as environmental factors, play an important role in XP. XP has a >1000-fold increased risk of a cutaneous basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma or malignant melanoma. We report a case of XP with multiple cutaneous malignancies.

An 8-year-old female, born out of the second degree consanguineous marriage presented with complaints of hypo- and hyper-pigmented spots since the age of 1 year all over the body which gradually increased in size and number associated with small warty growths over face for5 years. She had a history of acute sunburn all over the body except armpits and perineum after sun exposure. The patient also had photophobia with redness, watering of eyes. On examination, she had multiple hyperpigmented warty growths over face [Figure 1]a. The patient was advised biopsy and photoprotection, but parents denied biopsy. After 1 year, patient came with an increase in number, size of the growths. All the growths were, warty and firm in consistency [Figure 1]b. A nontender nodular growth measuring about 2 cm × 3 cm was present over the right mandibular region from which biopsy was taken which was suggestive of nodular melanoma [Figure 2]a and [Figure 2]b. Another biopsy from growth over right temporal region showed features of hypertrophic type of actinic keratosis [Figure 2]c. Routine investigations were within normal limits. The patient was referred to oncology department, but relatives refused for any further management. The patient visited our department again after 2 years of the first visit with small fungating growths over face, scalp (4 cm × 4 cm) and large foul smelling fungating growth over nape of the neck extending over to upper back (10 cm × 8 cm) [Figure 3]a. Biopsy was taken from the growth over the nape of the neck which showed features of squamous cell carcinoma [Figure 3]b and [Figure 3]c. There was a history of injury to the right eye, in between the two visits for which evisceration was done. The left eye was congested; right orbital socket was empty. Clinically, she was diagnosed as XP with multiple cutaneous malignancies. The patient was put on chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma; later, she was lost in follow-up.
Figure 1: (a) Photograph of the patient of xeroderma pigmentosum at first visit. (b) Nodular lesion over right mandibular region and right temple with multiple freckles and verrucous lesions

Click here to view
Figure 2: (a) A well circumscribed nodular lesion with excess melanin pigment deposition and irregular arrangement of neoplastic cells (H and E, ×4). (b) Pleomorphic tumor cells with vesicular nuclei with prominent nucleoli seen. Moderate amount of cytoplasm seen. Abundant melanin pigment seen (H and E, ×40). (c) Hypertrophic actinic keratosis: Hyperkeratosis and papillomatosis with prominent cytologic atypia with a moderate lymphocytic infiltrate in the underlying dermis (H and E, ×4)

Click here to view
Figure 3: (a) Large fungating growth with bleeding over left side of nape of neck. (b) Malignant squamous cells arranged in nests with lymphocytic response in surrounding stroma. Keratin pearl formation and individual cell keratinization (H and E, ×10). (c) Malignant squamous cells arranged in nests with individual cell keratinization along with the presence of mitotic figures (H and E, ×40)

Click here to view


The incidence of XP in India is not known, but it is reported that its occurrence is more common in South India, especially in Karnataka.[2] Nucleotide excision repair defect is known to be the basic defect leading to defective repair of DNA damaged by UV radiation.[3]

Kramer et al. have reviewed the clinical features of 830 patients of XP.[4] These patients developed sensitivity to sunlight at the age between 1 and 2 years with the appearance of freckling, atrophy, telangiectasia as seen in our case. The median age for developing first malignant neoplasm of skin was 8 years. Forty-five to sixty percent of XP patients were observed to be developing malignant skin neoplasms in different studies.[5] Compared to normal controls Robbins has shown that the incidence of internal neoplasm in XP patients was 10–20 times higher.[6] Cutaneous neoplasms such as angiosarcoma and fibrosarcoma have also been reported.[7]

Various conditions like XP/Cockayne syndrome, cerebrooculofacial syndrome should be differentiated from XP.

Avoidance of sunlight, minimizing UV exposure by changes in the lifestyle like wearing protective clothing, UV absorbing glasses and long hair styles, early detection of skin lesions, and genetic counseling should be the primary management of XP. Surgical excision is the modality used for the treatment of cutaneous neoplasms. The incidence of new cancers in these patients is observed to have been reduced by oral 13-cisretinoic acid.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Norgauer J, Idzko M, Panther E, Hellstern O, Herouy Y. Xeroderma pigmentosum. Eur J Dermatol 2003;13:4-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Tamhankar PM, Iyer SV, Ravindran S, Gupta N, Kabra M, Nayak C, et al. Clinical profile and mutation analysis of xeroderma pigmentosum in Indian patients. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2015;81:16-22.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
3.
Sahai P, Singh K, Sharma S, Kashyap S, Mohanti BK. Basal cell carcinoma in a child with xeroderma pigmentosum: Clinical response with electron beam radiation therapy. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2013;79:533-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
4.
Kraemer KH, DiGiovanna JJ. Xeroderma Pigmentosum. 2003. Gene Reviews™. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ books/NBK1397/. [Last accessed on 2013 Aug 05].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Bandyopadhyay R, Nag D, Bandyopadhyay S, Sinha SK. Atypical fi broxanthoma: An unusual skin neoplasm in xeroderma pigmentosum. Indian J Dermatol 2012;57:384-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
6.
Robbins JH. Xeroderma pigmentosum. Defective DNA repair causes skin cancer and neurodegeneration. JAMA 1988;260:384-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Lambert WC, Kuo HR, Lambert MW. Xeroderma pigmentosum. Dermatol Clin 1995;13:169-209.  Back to cited text no. 7
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
   References
   Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed413    
    Printed3    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded53    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal